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Observables

Observables form the reactive state of your MobX Application. You can use the API directly or rely on annotations to make it easier. The reactive state of your application can be divided into the Core State and Derived State. Core State is the state inherent to your business domain, where as Derived State is state that can be derived from the Core State.

Reactive State = Core-State + Derived-State

As you can tell from the image above, the Derived-State is almost always read-only. In the MobX parlance, derived-state is also called computed properties, or just computeds.

The derived state can be much bigger than the core-state. This is understandable as the number of variations in which the core-state can be visualized can keep increasing over time. All of these are projections from the core-state. For example, the same list of items can be visualized as the raw list, a table, chart or some custom visualization. The view-specific data can be derived from the same core-state.

Observable

Observable(T initialValue, {String name, ReactiveContext context})

  • T initialValue: the initial value for the Observable or null otherwise.
  • String name: a name to identify during debugging
  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this observable is bound. By default, all observables are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.

An Observable is used to track a single value, either primitive or complex. Whenever it changes value, it will fire a notification so that all connected reactions will re-execute.

final counter = Observable(0); // initially 0

final list = Observable<List<Todo>>(); // start with an initialValue of null

If you use a Store class, you could do the following to annotate observable properties of the class:

import 'package:mobx/mobx.dart';

part 'todo.g.dart';

class Todo = _Todo with _$Todo;

abstract class _Todo with Store {
_Todo(this.description);


String description = '';


bool done = false;


void markDone(bool flag) {
done = flag;
}
}

Readonly

Generally speaking you want two things in your stores: reactive fields and encapsulation. Let's take a look at the counter example once again.

import 'package:mobx/mobx.dart';

part 'counter.g.dart';

class Counter = CounterBase with _$Counter;

abstract class CounterBase with Store {

int value = 0;


void increment() {
value++;
}
}

As you can see, the value field is public, which means you are allowed to do the following:

final counter = Counter();
counter.value = -42;

This violates the encapsulation principle from OOP, so let's make it private.

import 'package:mobx/mobx.dart';

part 'counter.g.dart';

class Counter = CounterBase with _$Counter;

abstract class CounterBase with Store {

int _value = 0;


int get value => _value;


void increment() {
_value++;
}
}

So, because you made it private you're now required to make a getter, otherwise the client wouldn't have access to value. But, as most of the time you want to keep things privatly, a Store with slightly more fields would result in some serious boilerplate. Could we avoid that?

I'm glad you asked. To solve this problem we made a annotation which makes getters for private variables so that you don't have to. Look how it translates into code:

import 'package:mobx/mobx.dart';

part 'counter.g.dart';

class Counter = CounterBase with _$Counter;

abstract class CounterBase with Store {

int _value = 0;


void increment() {
_value++;
}
}

Isn't it awesome? Now your fields can only be changed by @actions methods while being available throught getters. It is no different than an observable though, you're allowed to use of computed getters the same way you do with @observable.

Note: Just don't forget to use it only on private fields, because it just doesn't make sense otherwise. But don't worry, if by any chance you happens to forget, we warn you with friendly errors at code generation time.

Computed

Computed(T Function() fn, {String name, ReactiveContext context})

  • T Function() fn: the function which relies on observables to compute its value.
  • String name: a name to identify during debugging
  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this computed is bound. By default, all computeds are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.

Computeds form the derived state of your application. They depend on other observables or computeds for their value. Any time the depending observables change, they will recompute their new value. Computeds are also smart and cache their previous value. Only when the computed-value is different than the cached-value, will they fire notifications. This behavior is key to ensure the connected reactions don't execute unnecessarily.

CachingThe caching behavior is only for notifications and not for the value. Calling a computed property will always evaluate and return the value. There is no caching on the computation itself. However, notifications fire only when the computed value is different from the previous one. This is where the caching behavior applies.

final first = Observable('Pavan');
final last = Observable('Podila');

final fullName = Computed(() => '${first.value} ${last.value}');

print(fullName.value); // Pavan Podila

runInAction(() => first.value = 'Siri');

print(fullName.value); // Siri Podila

With annotations, this can become easier to use:

part 'todo_list.g.dart';

class Contact = _Contact with _$Contact;

abstract class _Contact with Store {

String first = 'Pavan';


String last = 'Podila';


String get fullName => '${first} ${last}';

}

Why do we need an Observable*** Class for types like Future, Stream, List, Map, Set?The core types provided by Dart are not reactive by nature. They don't participate in the MobX reactive system and hence changesin them are not notified to the Observer. To have a well-behaving reactivesystem, we need data-structures that are also reactive inherently. Thisrequires that we have an Observable-version of the core types like List,

Set, Map, Future and Stream.The following set of types will help you build stores that participate well in the MobX world. Use them when you need reactive data-structures that are MobX-ready!

ObservableList

ObservableList({ReactiveContext context})

  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this list is bound. By default, all ObservableLists are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.

An ObservableList gives you a deeper level of observability on a list of values. It tracks when items are added, removed or modified and notifies the observers. Use an ObservableList when a change in the list matters. You can couple this with the @observable annotation to also track when the list reference changes, eg: going from null to a list with values.

Whenever you are using Observer and need to pass ObservableList to Observer child, use observableList.toList() to tell your Observer to track your list mutations and pass it to child widget as a List. Look for the example below for better understanding.

Example

Below is the example to use ObservableList with Observer.

class Controller {
final ObservableList<String> observableList = ObservableList<String>();
}
  Observer(builder: (_) {
return SizedBox(
width: 1024,
height: 512,
child: ChildWidget(
list: controller.observableList.toList(), // Mobx will detect mutations to observableList
),
);
}),
class ChildWidget extends StatelessWidget {
const ChildWidget({super.key, required this.list});

/// Don't use ObservableList here otherwise the context for parent widget
/// observer will change and it will not track these mutations.

final List<String> list;


Widget build(BuildContext context) {
return ListView.builder(
itemCount: list.length,
itemBuilder: (context, index) {
return SizedBox(
width: 112,
height: 48,
child: ListTile(
title: Text(list[index]),
),
);
});
}
}

ObservableMap

ObservableMap({ReactiveContext context})

  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this map is bound. By default, all ObservableMaps are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.

An ObservableMap gives you a deeper level of observability on a map of values. It tracks when keys are added, removed or modified and notifies the observers. Use an ObservableMap when a change in the map matters. You can couple this with the @observable annotation to also track when the map reference changes, eg: going from null to a map with values.

ObservableSet

ObservableSet({ReactiveContext context})

  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this set is bound. By default, all ObservableSets are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.

An ObservableSet gives you a deeper level of observability on a set of values. It tracks when values are added, removed or modified and notifies the observers. Use an ObservableSet when a change in the set matters. You can couple this with the @observable annotation to also track when the set reference changes, eg: going from null to a set with values.

ObservableFuture

ObservableFuture(Future<T> future, {ReactiveContext context})

  • Future<T> future: The future that is tracked for status changes.
  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this observable-future is bound. By default, all ObservableFutures are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.

The ObservableFuture is the reactive wrapper around a Future. You can use it to show the UI under various states of a Future, from pending to fulfilled or rejected. The status, result and error fields of an ObservableFuture are observable and can be consumed on the UI.

Here is a simple LoadingIndicator widget that uses the ObservableFuture to show a progress bar during a fetch operation:


// github_store.dart
part 'github_store.g.dart';

class GithubStore = _GithubStore with _$GithubStore;

abstract class _GithubStore with Store {
// ...

static ObservableFuture<List<Repository>> emptyResponse =
ObservableFuture.value([]);

// We are starting with an empty future to avoid a null check

ObservableFuture<List<Repository>> fetchReposFuture = emptyResponse;

// ...
}

// github_widgets.dart
class LoadingIndicator extends StatelessWidget {
const LoadingIndicator(this.store);

final GithubStore store;


Widget build(BuildContext context) => Observer(
builder: (_) => store.fetchReposFuture.status == FutureStatus.pending
? const LinearProgressIndicator()
: Container());
}

ObservableStream

ObservableStream(Stream<T> stream, {T initialValue, bool cancelOnError, ReactiveContext context, String? name, EqualityComparer<dynamic>? equals})

  • Stream<T> stream: The stream that is tracked for status and value changes.
  • T initialValue: The starting value of the stream.
  • bool cancelOnError: Should the stream be cancelled on error. Default is set to false.
  • ReactiveContext context: the context to which this observable-stream is bound. By default, all ObservableStreams are bound to the singleton mainContext of the application.
  • String? name: This string is used as a debug name.
  • EqualityComparer<dynamic>? equals: It acts as a comparison function for comparing the previous value with the next value. If this function considers the values to be equal, then the observers will not be re-evaluated.

Similar to ObservableFuture, an ObservableStream provides a reactive wrapper around a Stream. This gives an easy way to observe and re-render whenever there is new data, or error or a status change on the ObservableStream.

Atom

An Atom is at the core of the MobX reactivity system. It tracks when it is observed and notifies whenever it changes. Note that an Atom does not store any value. That is the responsibility of the Observable, which extends Atom to add the storage. You would rarely need to use an Atom directly. Instead, depend on an Observable for most use-cases.

AsideThe mobx_codegen package uses an Atom internally for all the @observable annotated fields.

Atomic Clock

Here is a simple clock that relies on an Atom to notify every second.

Full code can be seen here.

  • When the clock gets observed the first time, we start the timer (_startTimer).
  • When the clock is no longer observed (eg: when a reaction is disposed), we dispose off the timer (_stopTimer).
  • In each tick of the timer, we call _atom.reportChanged(). This notifies the MobX reactive system that the atom has changed value and all connected reactions should be re-executed.
  • When the now property is read the first time, the clock gets observed and starts ticking. It also fires the _atom.reportObserved() to make MobX start tracking this atom.
import 'dart:async';

import 'package:mobx/mobx.dart';

class Clock {
Clock() {
_atom = Atom(
name: 'Clock Atom', onObserved: _startTimer, onUnobserved: _stopTimer);
}

DateTime get now {
_atom.reportObserved();
return DateTime.now();
}

Atom _atom;
Timer _timer;

void _startTimer() {
print('Clock started ticking');

if (_timer != null) {
_timer.cancel();
}

_timer = Timer.periodic(Duration(seconds: 1), _onTick);
}

void _stopTimer() {
if (_timer != null) {
_timer.cancel();
}

print('Clock stopped ticking');
}

void _onTick(_) {
_atom.reportChanged();
}
}